World Thalassaemia Day

World Thalassaemia Day: Causes, Symptoms & Prevention

1 year ago

World Thalassaemia Day is celebrated every year on 8 May. It is celebrated to create awareness regarding thalassaemia disease among patients. In this disease, the body produces less hemoglobin and red blood cells.Due to this disease, the body gets weaker  and destroys the other blood cells. Thalassaemia is inherited from parents to children. 

In 1994, Thalassaemia International Federation(TIF) announced 8 May as World Thalassaemia Day. Founder of TIF created this day in the memory of his son and other patients who fought this disease. This day is dedicated to thalassaemia patients. Thalassaemia may not get diagnosed until 2-3 years of age. If both of your parents have thalassaemia then there are chances of you having thalassaemia disease. It is mostly common in Africa, Asia, and Mediterranean countries like Turkey or Greece. 

Causes of Thalassaemia :-

Thalassaemia is caused when your body produces less hemoglobin. It develops when there is some abnormality in genes. If any of the parents have thalassaemia then it is more likely to have minor thalassaemia in the child. If both of the parents have thalassaemia then chances get increased you are more likely to get the disease.   

Thalassaemia is of Major Two types- Alpha and Beta

Alpha Thalassaemia:- Alpha thalassemia occurs when some or all of the 4 genes that make hemoglobin (the alpha-globin genes) are missing or damaged.

Beta Thalassaemia:-  Beta thalassemia is caused by damaged or missing genes. 

Symptoms Of Thalassaemia

  • Fatigue
  • Pale colored skin
  • Difficulty in Breathing
  • The abdomen is swelling
  • Dizziness
  • Feeling cold
  • Consistent exhaustion and black urine
  • Rate of growth is sluggish
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes
  • Irregular heartbeats
  • Swelling and scarring of the liver
  • Diabetes
  • Delayed Puberty
  • Headaches
  • Chest pain
  • Greater susceptibility of infection

Treatment of Thalassaemia :-

  • Blood Transfusion :- If the person serves major thalassaemia then often require blood transfusion. With time blood transfusion can cause an excess amount of iron.  
  • Chelation Therapy:- Due to blood transfusion an excess amount of iron is generated in the body. Excess amounts of iron can damage the heart and other organs. Due to which the doctor prescribed deferoxamine. It is given by injection to the patient. 
  • Folic Acid Supplementation:- Folic Acid Supplementation is necessary for thalassaemia patients to develop red blood cells. It can help body to make healthy blood cells.
  • Luspatercept:- It is an injection that is given to patients every three weeks to make more red blood cells. It is an approved drug in the USA.
  • Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant:- Old Blood and Marrow Stem cell replaces with good Blood and marrow stem cell in this process. It is replaced with a healthy person’s marrow and its a very risky procedure.  
  • Possible Future Treatments:- Researchers are finding the new treatments for thalassaemia that can insert the normal hemoglobin into stem cell transplant. 

Kirti Aggarwal

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