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World Malaria Day: Know How a mosquito transmit malaria

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Fact: Every year there are more than 200 million new cases of malaria, a preventable and treatable disease

Every year, April 25 is observed as World Malaria Day. Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused in people by parasitic bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The 2 of species – P. falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat in humans for malaria. Malaria is preventable and curable.

World Malaria Day 2021: Reaching the Zero Malaria Target

This year, WHO and partners will mark World Malaria Day by celebrating the achievements of countries that are approaching – and achieving – malaria elimination and that’s why the World Malaria Day 2021 theme is Reaching the Zero Malaria Target. This will be an inspiration for all nations that are also working to eradicate the deadly disease and improve the health and livelihoods of their populations.

Symptoms of Malaria

Symptoms of Malaria appear after 10–15 days of an infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms – fever, headache, and chills – may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria but if not treated within 24 hours, it can lead to severe illness, often leading to death. infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, and patients with HIV/AIDS, as well as non-immune migrants, mobile populations, and travelers, are at more risk of getting malaria.

How Anopheles Mosquito transmit Malaria?

Anopheles mosquitoes lay their eggs in water (Stagnant water is more preferable), eggs hatch into larvae and then emerge out as adult mosquitoes. To nurture the eggs, the female mosquitoes seek a blood meal. Malaria spreads when a mosquito becomes infected with the disease after biting an infected person, and the infected mosquito then bites a non-infected person. The malarial parasites enter the person’s bloodstream and travel to the liver cells. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect red blood cells. Malarial transmission is more intense in places where the mosquito lifespan is longer and where there are more humans to bite.

Lifecycle of Femal Anopheles Mosquito

How Malaria can be prevent?

Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission

Sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is also preferable. It can reduce contact between mosquitoes and humans by providing both a physical barrier and an insecticidal effect.

Insecticidal sprays in home are also a powerful way to reduce malaria transmission.

Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths.

Information Source: https://www.who.int/campaigns/world-malaria-day

Seema Jain

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