Culture of Jharkhand: Tradition and Lifestyle
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Jharkhand state shares its boundaries with five other states; Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Odisha. Earlier a part of Bihar, the state has come a long way to establish its own unique tradition, customs, and lifestyle. The tribal community of Jharkhand has a major contribution to the culture of Jharkhand.
Tribes of Jharkhand
Some of the tribes of Jharkhand are: Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia , Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chik Baraik, Karmali, Kharia, Kharwar, Gorait, Ho, Gond, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal Pahariya, , Santhal, Sauria, Paharia, Savar, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Bhumij, Kol, Kanwar.
Asur community is a very small tribal group living in Jharkhand and western part of West Bengal. The total population of Asur community is 33,000 (2011) and among which 28,735 lives in mostly in the Lohardaga, Gumla, Latehar and Palamu districts. They speak Birja language and believe in Black Magic.
This community is mostly found in madhya Pardesh, Chhatisgarh, Uttar Pardesh and Jharkhand. According to 2011 census around 3585 Baiga community people live in Jharkhand. The community believes in mother nature and do not plow to obtain food. They speak Baigani language.
Ho constitutes around 10.7% of Scheduled Tribe on Jharkhand. They are also found in Odisha, West Bengal and Bihar. They speak the Language Ho which which human in their language.
Munda people are one of the largest Scheduled Tribes of India. They speak Mundari Language. The word Munda means “headman” in Sanskrit language. They practice Sarnaism, Christianity and Hinduism religion. They have many folk dances, music and art. They celebrate festivals like Mage Parab, Sorhai, Baha parab, Karam, Sarhul and Phagu.
Santhals is one of the largest communities in Jharkhand. They speak Santali Language and follow Christianity, Hinduism and Sarna Dharma. Sohrai is the most significant festival of Santal community. Chadar Badar is very famous puppetry show among these people.
Festivals of Jharkhand
When it comes to the festival, the people of Jharkhand never back down to bring all the colors and joy to the celebration. The people of Jharkhand celebrate many festivals among which Holi, Diwali, Eid-ul-Fitr, Dusshera, Chhat Puja, Jitiya, Navratri, Christmas are most common. The festival of Navratri is celebrated with much excitement. Dandiya Nights are organized across the state to celebrate the 9 days festivals. The energetic exuberance in people is something to watch.
Some of the tribal festivals are also celebrated with much enthusiasm, like Karma, Sohrai, Sarhul, Mage Porob, Hal Punya. These are mostly cattle festivals, harvest festivals, or seasonal festivals.
Folk Music and Dance of Jharkhand
The Folk Music and Dance of Jharkhand is a treat to eyes and filled with extreme talent and art. The tribal community plays a vital role in bringing and maintaining the charisma of this music and dance. Some of the famous folk dance of Jharkhand are Jhumair, Fagua, Paika, Janani Jhumair, Vinsariya, Mardana Jhumair, Domkach, Chhau, Lahasua, Jhumpa, Mundari, and Santali dance.
Jhumair is Sadan community dance performed in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. It is celebrated during the harvest season and festivals. The instruments such as Dhol, Bansi, Nagara, Mandar, Dhak and Shehnai etc.are used in this dance.
It is a folk dance of Chota Nagpur Plateau region. The men and women both perform this dance along with the use of instruments like Mandar, Dhol and Bansi.
The most consumed foods of Jharkhand are rice, dal, and vegetables. Jharkhand people are fond of spices and it is used in lots of cuisines. Some of the famous dishes here are Chirka roti, Pitta, Dhuska, Malpua, Arsa roti, Litti Chokha, Dudhauri, and Gupchup.
Rugra and Putoo are mushroom types that are grown in Jharkhand and harvested during the time of the rainy season. They also use Bamboo shoots as a vegetable. Some of the drinks of Jharkhand people are pej (Baiga community), Handi or Hadiya which is commonly known as rice beer (Sadan community), and Mahua Daru which is made from the flowers of the Mahua Tree.
Art and Paintings of Jharkhand
The Banjara community has Banjara embroidery and tattooing which is a very important part of their culture. During the Sohrai festival, Sahrai Painting is performed. Chou masks are made of paper mache in parts of Jharkhand. Chou is a type of dance performed with colorful masks. Jharkhand state is rich in Saal forests and hence the wooden work is very famous in some parts of the state. Baskets, hunting & fishing equipment made from Bamboo are much famous in Netarhat.
Tattooing holds a very important part in the lives of the tribes. The women of the Baiga tribe have tattoos on all parts of their bodies. Most of the tribes get their body tattooed during the winter and continues until the summer season comes. The Gond Tribe also tattoo their body; they consider the tattoo as a permanent part of their life and thinks that it is the only thing that goes on with them after their life. The Korwa Tribe men and women also get tattoos in the places where mostly ornaments are worn like on the wrists, legs, neck, above the breasts, and ankles. They avoid having tattoos on the back and the forehead.